6 Steps In Booting Process Of A Computer

Booting is a process of switching on a computer. Two types of booting are cold booting and warm booting. Six steps of the booting process are BIOS and Setup Program, The Power-On-Self-Test (POST), The Operating System Loads, System Configuration, System Utility Loads, and Users Authentication.

Types of Booting

Booting is a process of switching on the computer and starting the operating system. When a computer is switched on, The boot process loads the operating system into main memory (RAM) installed inside it. Types of computer booting are Cold Booting And Warm Booting.

types of booting

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  • Cold Boot: when the user switches on a computer after it has been power off completely,
  • Warm Boot: when the user restarts the computer.

When the booting process takes place, it copies kernel and important instructions of an operating system from hard disk to main memory (RAM). The kernel is the most important part of the operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains computer clock, starts applications.
It assigns compute resources like devices, programs, data, and information also. The kernel also remains in memory permanently when the computer starts.

Steps In the Booting Process

Booting is a process of switching on the computer and starting the operating system. Six steps of the booting process are BIOS and Setup Program, The Power-On-Self-Test (POST), The Operating System Loads, System Configuration, System Utility Loads and Users Authentication.

booting process

  • 1: BIOS and Setup Program
  • 2: The Power-On-Self-Test (POST)
  • 3: The Operating System (OS) Loads
  • 4: System Configuration
  • 5: System Utility Loads
  • 6: Users Authentication

Step 1: BIOS and Setup Program

  • ROM (read-only memory): it is a permanent and unchanging memory also
  • BIOS (basic input/output system ): the part of the system software that includes the instructions that the computer uses to accept input and output
  • Load: to transfer from a storage device to memory. The ROM loads BIOS into the computer’s memory
  • Setup program: a special program containing settings to control hardware.  Furthermore,  the program can only be accessed while the BIOS information is visible

Step 2: The Power-On-Self-Test (POST)

  • POST (Power-On Self-Test): a series of tests conducted on the computer’s main memory, input/output devices, disk drives, and the hard disk.
  • BIOS conducts Power-On-Self-Test to check the input/ output system for operability.
  • The computer will produce a beeping sound if any problem occurs. An error message will also appear on the monitor

Step 3: The Operating System (OS) Loads

BIOS  searches for the operating system.

  • Setting in CMOS: complementary metal oxide semiconductor determines where to look for the operating system.
  • In this step, the operating system’s kernel is also loaded into the computer’s memory.
  • The operating system takes control of the computer and begins loading system configuration information.

Step 4: System Configuration

  • Registry: a database to store information about peripherals and software
  • Peripheral: a device connected to a computer
  • Drive: a utility program that makes peripheral devices function properly
  • The operating system’s registry configures the system.
  • In this step, drivers are also loaded into memory.

Step 5: System Utility Loads

  • System utilities are loaded into memory.
  • Volume control
  • Antivirus software
  • PC card unplugging utility

Step 6: Users Authentication

  • Authentication or user login occurs
  • Username
  • Password

After all this process, the user interface starts, enabling user interaction with the computer and its programs also.

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