Types Of Kernel And Its Functions In Os

The kernel is the core of an operating system that is first loaded and then stored in the main memory (RAM). Since the kernel is in memory and provides essential services to other components of the os.

Its size should be as small as possible. The information in the kernel is often encrypted and stored in a protected area of ​​memory to prevent it from being overwritten by other programs.

The kernel is generally responsible for memory and processing management and disk space management. The hardware kernel connects the computer to the application software before and after the booting process.

OS Kernel Functions

Access to computer resources or mobile devices: The kernel can access various computer resources such as processors, input devices and output devices, and other resources. The kernel acts as a bridge between the user and the computer resources.

Resource Management: The kernel’s mission is to divide resources between different processes and create access to integrate resources in each process.

Memory Management: Each process requires space or the same amount of memory. Therefore, some memory must be allocated to it and then removed, and all of this memory is either managed by the kernel.

Device Management: Devices connected to the computer are managed by this process. Therefore, the hardware allocation is managed by the kernel.

kernel in os
kernel in os

Difference Between Kernel And OS

  • OS ensures protection and security while Kernel ensures memory management, desk management, process management, and task management.
  • All systems must need OS to run smoothly while all OS need Kernel to run smoothly.

Kernel Tasks in the Operating System

The kernel is responsible for low-level tasks such as disk management, memory management, and task management, and provides an interface between the user and computer hardware components.

The request that is sent to the process kernel is called a system call. The operating system kernel is equipped with a protected kernel space. This area does not have access to memory and other applications. That is, the system memory space is divided into two parts:

  • The Kernel Space,
  • The Userspace

Therefore, the kernel code is loaded instead of this protected kernel. Userspace is the memory used by other programs. Since these two memory spaces are different, the communication between them will be a little slower

There are special algorithms that should only be executed by the kernel. So, for example, CPU algorithms work only in kernel or kernel mode and cannot be accessed by regular programs.

For example, memory management should only be implemented in kernel mode. When the user is in the mode, the processor performs the operations provided by the user in the userspace. complicated?

But the kernel determines how much CPU an operating system or a particular program has. You can use this software to control this consumption.

For example, you are given 10 areas and you can use as many as 1 to 10 as you like. Now the phone has a photo editing program. The kernel allows 50% of the processor to be owned by this program, and user mode can be used more if you edit heavier images.

Types Of Kernel In OS

Following are important types of the kernel in os:

Integrated Monolithic Kernel

An integrated kernel is one that runs user services and kernel services on the same memory. In this case, there is no separate memory for user services and kernel services.

Doing so increases the size of the kernel and increases the size of the operating system. Due to the lack of separate user space and kernel space, the work process of integrated cores is faster.


Unix, Linux, etc.


Micro Kernels are different from integrated kernels because the user services and kernel services are executed on different micro-cores, i.e. we use user space and kernel space on the micro-cores. As we use kernel space, the kernel size and operating system size are reduced.


L4, AmigaOS, Match, etc.

Hybrid Kernel

A hybrid Kernel is a combination of an Integrated kernel and a Microkernel. This means it uses separate memory such as fast integrated kernel and small kernel. Hybrid kernels are the same small kernel that contains unwanted code in the kernel space to quickly execute functions in the userspace.

Therefore, some services, such as networking or system files, run in kernel space to reduce the load, but again the kernel code is executed as the server in the user space, which speeds up the performance.


Windows, Netware, and BeOS

Exo Kernel

Exo kernel is an operating system kernel created by MIT and the family of distributed operating systems. Kernel Type In this way, resources are protected from class administration, so we can make the necessary allocations for applications.

We cannot execute every concept in the Exo kernel. But the idea is to use it as much as possible and use it only when needed. This is the main difference between this type of kernel, integrated and Microkernel, but the design of the Exo kernel is more complex.


Enemy, EXOS.

Nano Kernel

This type of kernel contains a hardware digest but does not contain computer services. Microkernels do not have computer services, and they are identical.



More About The Kernel

The kernel is the interface between hardware and software. Their job is to send applications to devices, and they act as downstream components of a computer system between the operating system and devices.

In general, operating systems in computer science and undergraduate course subjects focus on textbooks and resources at the center of the operating system.

Core actually controls the behavior of the operating system and mediates between software and hardware. For example, moving data from disk to main memory is the responsibility of the os kernel.

So the operating system kernel determines how to do this. In this case, the application that needs to transfer data from disk to main memory only makes the necessary request to the operating system.

In general, an application is not directly related to the hardware. But as we mentioned, the operating system is an intermediary between the application and the device so that the devices can be used easily and without.


In general, all these cores and applications are looking for the same thing, now some are more flexible and some are more secure. I hope you understand this article well. Ask a question in the comments. Thanks.e

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