An operating system is a set of programs that provide common services for controlling and allocating memory, prioritizing system requests, controlling pointing devices and output devices, facilitating networking, managing file systems. Important types of the operating system are Windows, Linux, Unix, and mac os.
An operating system is a set of programs that control and manages all computer resources and operations. The operating system is the most important type of system software that executes user programs and makes an easier solution to user problems. Users also interact with different types of computers through an operating system.
Furthermore, A computer can do nothing without an operating system. An OS must be installed on every computer. when a computer is turned on, the operating system runs a check that all parts of the computer are functioning properly. The operating system manages all operations on a computer after loading.
In addition, an operating system is a set of programs that acts as an interface between a user and computer hardware. Popular types of operating systems are DOS, Windows, Unix, OS/2, and Linux, etc.
History Of Operating System
The first OS was the GM-NAA I / O. It was manufactured by General Motors Research for its IBM 704 in 1956. After that, with the invention of personal computers in 1975, the user was using a command-line interface.
A set of commands are used to perform specific functions through the operating system, which was very tough and tedious. Today, every computer being operated using a GUI (graphical user interface) that is much easier to work with os.
Components Of Operating System
Any operating system in the world contains 5 basic components that work with each other in reliability and consistency. And it is impossible in the absence of any of them to say that this is an operating system.
Here are these components:
The kernel is one of the most important components of the Windows operating system. It serves as the bridge between computer hardware and software. It ensures the process of controlling the device’s resources and creates a layer that software can communicate with.
Moreover, it’s responsible for providing computer capabilities for software controlled by the user. In addition, it translates the commands entered to it by the command interpreter and transfers them to memory, and organizes spaces and works.
The boot loader is the program entrusted with loading the rest of the parts of the operating system after the success of the POST tests.
The boot loader is usually located on the first boot disk and is called by the BIOS, which then moves it from the disk to the main memory.
They are a group of subprograms used for software development. They contain data that provides services for stand-alone programs, configuration data, documentation, and help data.
Libraries put references to each other called links in the field of programming and performed by a program called Linker.
Also known as the Device Driver or Firmware, it is a computer program that serves as a driver or definition for computer hardware and its accessories.
The driver software often communicates with its device through the computer path or communication system to which the device is connected.
Which is known in the technical language of PAL Compiler, is a software program that converts source files Source code directly to the commands understood by the computer and executed directly to suit the target computer program structure.
Types of Operating System
Earlier, many operating systems were device-dependent and proprietary. A type of software that runs only on a specific type of computer is called device-dependent. A type of software that is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model is called proprietary software.
Another type of operating system that recognizes and works with application software written for an earlier operating system is called downward-compatible.
Manufacturers normally introduced a different operating system for each new computer model and it was a problem for the user to switch from one computer model to another. The application software could not work on different computer models. Here is the list of important types of the operating system are as follows:
- Multi-user OS
- Multiprocessor OS
- Multitasking OS
- Multithreading OS
- Time-Sharing OS
- Stand-Alone OS
- Network OS
- Embedded OS
Multi-User Operating System
A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to share data and the same computer at the same time. A powerful computer server controls how the computer works and communicates. Some important examples of multi-user operating systems are Linux, UNIX, and Windows 2000.
Multi-Processor Operating System
Multiprocessor operating system is the second most important type of operating system. Multiprocessor operating system supports two or more processors that running programs at the same time. All the CPUs are work with close communication and are sharing their resources like computer buses, peripheral devices, and memory. Examples of multiprocessing operating systems are Linux, UNIX & Windows 2000.
Multitasking Operating System
A multitasking operating system executes more than one program at the same time. This operating system monitors your position inside these tasks and shifts from one task to another without any loss of information. Some examples of multitasking operating systems are UNIX and Windows 2000.
Multithreading Operating System
An operating system that allows different parts of a program to run concurrently is called a multithreading operating system. This operating system allows a user to support multiple threads of execution inside a single process. Examples of multithreading operating systems are Linux, UNIX, and Windows 2000 also.
Time-Sharing Operating System
The time-sharing operating system enables a large number of users to share the computer simultaneously. It is used when many users are linked through communication networks to a single computer. The computer first works on one user’s task for a fraction of time and then goes to the next computer rapidly. It also switches back and forth among different tasks.
Stand-Alone Operating Systems
An operating system that can be operated on a desktop, notebook computer or any mobile computing device is called a stand-alone operating system. A stand-alone operating system that combines works with a network operating system is called a client operating system.
Common types of stand-alone operating systems are DOS, Windows 95, Windows NT Workstation, Windows Me, and also Windows XP Home Edition, etc.
DOS stands for Disk Operating System. This operating system is also called Command Prompt operating system. MS-DOS was developed by Microsoft in the early 1980s for personal computers. It is a type of single-user operating system in which only one user can work at a time.
Windows XP is also a product of Microsoft Corporation. It’s released in 2001. XP stands for experience. It provides a quicker startup, better performance, and a new visual look. Three versions of Windows XP are Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, and Windows XP Server.
Macintosh’s operating system is a product of Apple. It was one of the first successful GUI. It was released with Macintosh computers in1984. The latest version of this operating system is called Mac OS X. It is a desktop interface with 3-D visualization. UNIX and old Mac applications are easy runs on Mac OS X.
Network Operating Systems
An operating system that is developed to support personal computers, terminals, and workstations connected over a network is called a network operating system. It normally works on a server. Types of the network operating system are:
- Windows NT Server,
- Windows 2000 Server
Novell’s Netware is a network operating system. It is designed for a client/ server network. In addition, it is also important to know that the server portion of this operating system resides on a network server and the client portion resides on each client computer.
Windows NT Server
Windows NT Server is also a product of Microsoft. It is designed for client/server networks. The server in the network uses the Windows NT Server operating system. The client computers use Windows NT Workstation or other stands alone versions of windows.
UNIX is a multitasking operating system. It was developed in the early 1970s at Bell Laboratories. Many versions of this operating system are available also. It uses a command-line interface. UNIX is mainly used in network environments and is very popular for its security also.
Linux is a free and multitasking operating system. This operating system was developed in 1991. It is also open-source software. It means that its code is available to the public. Some versions of Linux use a command-line interface and others use GUI. Examples of Linux are LINUX MINT, Manjaro DEBIAN, UBUNTU, etc.
Solaris is a version of the UNIX operating system. It was developed by Sun Microsystems. Solaris is a network operating system and also designed for e-commerce applications. In addition, it can manage high traffic accounts and security for web transactions. The client version of Solaris is also called CDE.
Embedded Operating Systems
An operating system that is used in most handheld computers and small devices is called an embedded operating system. It resides on a ROM chip. Some types of embedded operating system are:
- Windows CE
- Pocket PC 2002
- Palm OS
Windows CE is a scaled-down operating system. It was released in 1996. It is designed for use on wireless communications devices. Window CE is also used in handheld computers, in-vehicle devices, and some Web-enabled devices. Window CE supports color, sound, multitasking, email, and internet capabilities.
Pocket PC 2002
Pocket PC 2002 is a scaled-down operating system. It was also designed by Microsoft for a particular type of handheld computer called Pocket PC. Pocket PC is used to access PIM (personal information manager) functions like contact lists, schedules, tasks, calendars, and notes.
Pocket PC 2002 also provides facilities to check email, browse the Web, listen to music, watch a video, sends and receive instant messages and record a voice message, etc.
Palm OS is also called Garnet OS. It is an operating system for handheld computers. it is also used to manage schedules and contacts and synchronize this information with a desktop computer. Some handheld computers provide wireless access to the internet and email.
Features of Operating System
- The optimal use of resources and avoid killing them
- Allocation and discharge of resources
- Manage queues and plan resource usage
- Keep a record of the amount of resource use
- Create & ensure security
- Create, remove, and control processes
- Set up mechanisms for communication between processes and their synchronization
- Handle files and folders
- Manage main and external memory
- Establish multiaccess and run simultaneous processes
- Resource sharing management
- Determine resolution for managing deadlocks
- Keep away from Race Conditions and Interlocking Processes
- Starvation Prevention
Functions of Operating System
The basic function of an operating system is to allocate resources and provide services, including memory, devices, processors, and information. The operating system also uses multiple programs for managing these resources such as I / O programs, traffic controller, memory management module, file system, and scheduler.
- The operating system control and manages the main memory
- Os make sure the security of the system and files
- It is responsible for controlling system performance
- It also keeps a record of the system performance calculations
- Another function of the operating system is to provide help in detecting errors
- The OS works as a coordinator between other software and users
- It also responsible for CPU management
- It performs the hardware management
- The task of the operating system to manage files
Examples Of Operating System
The most common examples of Operating Systems are:
- Windows 10
PC and Microsoft Compatible OS
- Apple macOS
Only Compatible with Apple macOS systems
- Ubuntu Linux
Type of Linux compatible with computers & used with PC and IBM
- Google Android
Compatible with Android-compatible Smartphones and Tablets
The Apple iPhone and iPad Compatible OS
The Google OS used in Chromebooks
A proprietary OS for OnePlus Phones
Watch Video For More Explanation: