Types Of Central Processing Unit And Their Functions

A central processing unit (CPU) known as a central or main processor, is an electronic part within a computer that executes instructions by the user. CPU consists of two components ALU & CU that handle arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) operations as per instructions.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is an electronic component inside the computer that handles and processes all instructions it receives from hardware and software running on the computer. It is the combination of two parts ALU & CU. It is also called a processor.

central processing unit

CPU is mounted on the motherboard. It carries out most of the work of a computer. Data comes from RAM and other units such as keyboards and drives that pass through the CPU continually. CPU processes the data and sends it back to RAM and also to other units.

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What Is CPU Full Form?

CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. It is the main part of the computer that receives information from memory, then applies various algorithms such as multiplication and addition or logic operations such as and or not, and Finally delivers the output.

CPU continually receives instructions to execute. Each instruction tells the CPU to process data. Furthermore, the CPU performs all operations on data according to the given instructions. It executes instructions and tells other parts of the computer what to do. Most of the work consists of calculations and data transfer.

Features Of CPU

The central processing unit (CPU) has the following features:

  • It is considered the brain of the computer.
  • Performs a variety of data processing operations.
  • Controls the operation of all parts of the computer.

Components Of The CPU 

A CPU is the combination of three major components that are ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit), CU (Control Unit) & Memory or Storage Unit / Registers. Both ALU & CU have unique functionality. It tackles arithmetic and logical operations while CU is responsible to control all activities of a computer.

components of central processing unit

  • Control Unit: The control unit is also called the supervisor of the computer that controls all activities of a computer system. CU fetches instructions from the main memory, interprets that instruction to find what operation is to be performed, and controls the execution of the instruction. [su_spacer size=”10″]
  • ALU: Arithmetic & logical unit is a part of the CPU. The actual execution of the instructions takes place in this part. All arithmetic and logical operations are performed in ALU. Furthermore, ALU further has two units that are Arithmetic Unit and Logic Unit.
  • Arithmetic Unit: The ALU performs basic arithmetic functions such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division also.
  • Logical Unit: The ALU carries out logical operations such as a comparison of two data items and also to find which data item is greater than, equal to, or less than the other.
  • Memory or Storage Unit / Registers: A register is a small high-speed memory inside the CPU. It is used to store temporary results. CPU Registers are designed to be assessed at a much higher speed than conventional memory.  Some registers are general purpose while others are classified according to the function they perform.

Examples Of Central Processing Unit

The CPUs are manufactured by Intel and AMD, each of which produces its own type of CPU. In the modern era, there are many types of CPUs on the market. Here are some of the main types of CPUs:

Single Core CPU

Single Core is the oldest type of computer CPU used in the 1970s. A single-core CPU has only one core to handle various processes. This CPU can only perform one operation at a time. The CPU moves back and forth between different sets of data streams when more than one program is running.

Dual-Core CPU

As the name suggests, a dual-core CPU consists of two cores in an integrated circuit (IC). Although each core has its own controller and cache, they are linked together to function as a single unit. So they can run faster than single-core processors and can perform more tasks than single-core processors.

Quad-Core CPU

This type of processor contains two dual-core processors in an integrated circuit (IC) or chip. Therefore, a quad-core processor is a chip made up of four independent units called cores. These cores read and execute CPU instructions. The cores can execute multiple instructions at the same time.

A quad-core CPU uses technology that allows four independent processing units (cores) to run in parallel on a single chip. Therefore, by integrating multiple cores into a single CPU, it is possible to produce more performance without increasing the clock speed.

However, performance only increases when a computer program supports multiple operations. Software that supports multiple processors divides the processing load among multiple processors instead of using one processor at the same time

What is CPU Clock Speed?

The Clock Speed ​​indicator is the speed at which instructions are executed by microprocessors, which specifies how many calculations the processor can perform per second. The term is also known as “clock rate”, “computer frequency” and “CPU frequency”.

The unit of measurement for this indicator is GHz which represents a billion pulses per second. The clock rate of personal computers is a characteristic of performance as well as the speed of data processing by the CPU. The higher the value, the better the system performance.

Types of CPU

There are two main types of central processing units that are dual-core processors and quad-core processors. A  CPU that has two joint processors is called a dual-core processor and the CPU that is the combination of four processors joint together is called a quad-core processor.

CPU Function

Central Processing Unit performs the following four functions:

functions of CPU
CPU Function
  • Fetch: Instruction fetch is a process of getting instruction from the memory to execute it. This process is performed by the control unit.
  • Interpret Instruction: Interpret instructions is a process to examine the nature of the instruction to determine what further operation should be taken. If any operation is needed, it should be carried out before the execution of that instruction.
  • Execute Instruction: After interpreting the instruction and getting the required data, the CPU finally executes that instruction. The instructions are executed by ALU.
  • Storage: the process of writing the result to the memory is called storage.

These four operations collectively are called a machine cycle or instruction cycle also. The time required to fetch and decode instruction is called instruction time or i-time. The time required for executing and the store is called Execution time or e-time.

Instruction Set of Processor

The set of all instructions that a CPU can perform is called an instruction set of the processor. The important types of instructions inside an instruction set are Arithmetic Instructions, Logical Instructions, Data Transfer Instructions, and Control Transfer Instructions.

  • Arithmetic Instructions: The instructions that are based on digits or arithmetic values used to perform arithmetic operations are called arithmetic instructions. Different arithmetic operations are additions, subtraction, multiplication, and division. These instructions are executed by the arithmetic and logic unit of the CPU.
  • Logical Instructions: The instructions used in order to perform logical operations are called logical instructions. A logical operation is the comparison of two data values. Furthermore, the possible comparisons are Greater than (>), Equal to (=), Less than (<). Furthermore, these instructions are also executed by the ALU.
  • Data Transfer Instruction: The instruction used to transfer data from one component to another component during program execution is called data transfer instructions. These instructions are used for the quick delivery of data between computer components to make program execution more reliable and efficient.
  • Control Transfer Instruction: The instruction used to change the sequence of instructions of a program is called control transfer instructions. These instructions transfer the execution control to a certain part of a program instead of the next instruction.

What Is The Role Of the CPU?

The CPU receives, decodes, processes, and delivers command data from RAM. CPUs are available in a variety of devices, from computers and laptops to smartphones, tablets, and smart TVs. Generally, processors have very small physical dimensions. These dimensions are very limited and range from 2 to 3 square inches.

What is CPU Usage?

CPU usage means how much the processor is working right now. The usage of the CPU can be examined to figure out how much of the processor’s capacity is currently occupied by different tasks. A computer’s CPU usage can be changed depending nature of tasks that are presently performed by the processor.

 Examples Of CPU

Intel and AMD are top brands in terms of CPU production. The main Intel products are Pentium and Zeon for servers and  Core 2 Duo and Intel Core for small computers. AMD now manufactures PC CPUs, GPUs, Workstation and Integrated processors, and motherboard chipsets.


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