5 Components Of Computer And Their Functions

A computer is a programmable electronic device that accepts data as input, manipulates it, produces information as output and stores in their storage as needed. Major components of a computer are Input & Output devices, System unit, Storage device, and communication devices.

What is a computer?

components of computerA computer is a programmable electronic device that evaluates data according to a set of commands,  produce output as a result and store it for future use. A computer is controlled by programmed instructions. It performs four general operations i.e input, processing, output, and storage.

Input: Entering data into a computer


Processing: Performing operations on data

Output: Presenting the result

Storage: Save the result for future

Basic Components of Computer

A computer is an electronic machine that consists of Input & Output devices, CPU, Storage devices, and communication devices. These components of a computer are necessary in order to operate a computer successfully. The most important component of the computer is CPU Called also “Brain of Computer”.

components of computer

List of main components of a computer are:

  • Input devices
  • Output devices
  • System Unit
  • Storage devices
  • Communication devices

Input Devices

A hardware component that enables a user to enter data and instructions to a computer is called an input device. These devices are used to feed information or provide control signals to the computer. Keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, digital camera, and PC camera are the most common input devices.

input devices


Keyboard: The user can use a keyboard to enter text. It contains alphabetic, numeric and other keys for entering a different type of data.

Mouse: a mouse is a pointing device. It controls the pointer on the screen. The user also gives instructions to the computer through a mouse. It contains different buttons.


Microphone: The user can use a microphone to enter input in the form of voice into the computer.

Scanner: it read and scans the hardcopy and graphics and produces the results in digital form.

Digital Camera: we can use a digital camera to take and store pictures in digital form.

PC Camera: PC camera enables a user to create a movie and take photos on the computer. furthermore, the user can also use it to make a video phone call.

Output devices

A hardware component that is used to display the result of the processing to the user is called an output device. The major output devices are a monitor, printer, and speaker. In addition,  LCDs and LEDs are also used to display output. Modern technology is the base of these output devices.

output devices


Monitor: a computer can also use a monitor to display text, graphics, and video output.

Printer:  if the user wants to get output in printed form on a paper, then he can use a printer.

Speakers: the speaker is also a hardware component that almost produces output in the form of sound, music, and voice.

System Unit 

The system unit is a box that contains different electronic components of a computer system. It is also called the chassis. It protects the internal components from damage. The electronic circuits in the system unit are connected to a motherboard.

central processing unit

Central Processing Unit (CPU): CPU is also called processor. It is also the brain of the computer. It evaluates and executes the commands on the computer.

Memory: memoryMemory is also an important component of a system unit. Memory is used in a computer to store data and instructions temporarily. Furthermore,  it loses all its information when power is turned off. These chips are connected to a motherboard.


Storage Devices

The hardware components that can be used to store data, commands, and information permanently for future use are called storage devices. Some important storage devices are the floppy disk drive, Zip drive, hard disk drive, CD-RW drive, DVD-ROM drive, etc.

storage devices



Communication Devices

The hardware components used to communicate and exchange date, instructions and information with other computers are called communication devices. Communication devices are also the most important types of computer components. The modem is an important communication device. It connects computers through the internet.

 communication devices

It enables the computer to communicate with other computers via a telephone line or cable also.

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