Network Protocols: In the modern world of technology, billions of users are communicating over networks with different devices and in different languages. This communication took place in multiple ways because data is transmitted through various software applications.
That’s why, if there are no fixed standards or rules through which the user and devices interact with the data, communication will not be possible all around the globe. In the following, we will talk about some set of rules that are also called protocols.
Yes, these are the protocols, a set of rules that help & control a particular technology that is used to communicate. In other words, protocols can also be called the digital languages that are working in the form of network algorithms. Different types of networks have different types of protocols.
Introduction To Network Protocols
Network Protocols are a set of conditions and rules that define the way of communication between two or more devices. Each protocol has a different function in order to achieve the correct communication between the devices. In addition to a set of rules that decide the method of how data transferring and exchanging take place while a message is sent and received.
Computer networking is not only to exchange bytes. There exist huge systems with several utilities and functions such as error detection, Encryption, Routing, etc. For proper communication, different systems must speak the same language.
There must be commonly suitable ways and principles about the interaction, timing, and underlying mechanisms. Those ways and associated principles are called Network Protocols.
What is Protocol In Computer?
The set of rules that exist in the Computer network and all the exchange of information between participants of the network based on them are called protocols. These protocols make it possible for all members to understand each other’s language and communicate in the best way.
We can simply say that protocols define a common language of communication between members of a network.
The task of data transfer is broken up into some modules. Here is the question is: Why? And how do these modules interact? For example, file transfer could use three modules
- File transfer application Layer
- Communication service module
- Network access module
Simplified File Transfer Architecture
File Transfer Application Layer: It specific commands, passwords, actual file(s), and high-level data also.
Communications Service Module: It ensures the reliability of to transfer of those data, detection of errors, and structured delivery of data packets also.
Network Module: Network module ensures the actual transfer of data. It also deals with the network. If the network changes, this will affect only this module, not the entire system.
Types Of Network Protocols
Here is the list of most common protocols used in a communication network:
TCP or Transmission Control Protocol guarantees the delivery of sequential data. This well-known protocol is used to communicate across the network. This protocol divides the message into a set of packets that are sent from source to destination and converts these packets into the original message at the destination.
IP or Internet Protocol is developed as an addressing protocol. This protocol often works combine with the TCP protocol. The IP address is used to help route packets via various nodes of a network until they are successfully transmitted to the destination system. TCP / IP is the most important network connection protocol.
POP3 or Post Office Protocol is developed to receive incoming emails.
The SMTP or Simple Email Transfer Protocol is developed to send and spread sent emails.
The FTP or File Transfer Protocol enables users to transfer files from one device to another. These files can be program files, multimedia, document text, etc.
The HTTP or Hypertext Transfer Protocol is used to transfer metadata between two or more computer systems. HTML tags are used to generate links. These links may include text or images.
HTTP is based on client-server principles that enable a client computer to build a connection to the server computer to raise a request. The server is responsible to approve and respond to the request raised by the client.
The HTTPS or Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol is a standard protocol used to establish secure communication between two computers while using a browser or save it from other data being collected from a web server.
The function of the HTTPS protocol is to transfer data between the browser (request) and the webserver (response) in Hypertext format. The major difference between the HTTPS protocol and HTTP is that the data is transferred in an encrypted format.
Therefore, HTTPS has the duty to prevent hackers from distorting or modifying the data during packet transmission.
The Telnet protocol is a set of standards designed to connect one system to another. This process is called the remote login connection process. The system that raises a request for the connection is said to be the local computer, while the system that accepts the connection is called the remote computer
The Gopher protocol is designed to search, find, retrieve and display documents from isolated sites. This protocol is also working on the client/server principle.
- SSL – Secure Sockets Layer
- SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
- IMAP – Internet Message Access Protocol
- POP – Post Office Protocol
- FTP – File Transfer Protocol
- NTP – Network Time Protocol
- DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
- SNMP – Simple Network Management
- A protocol that is used for network monitoring and network management.
- LDAP – Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
- ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol
- ARP – Address Resolution Protocol
- RARP – Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
- BOOTP – Boot Protocol
- PPTP – Point to Point Tunneling Protocol
The two types of network protocols are as follows:
- De Facto protocol
- De Jure protocol
The De Facto Protocols
The word De Facto means existing. These protocols are developed without any formal planning. These protocols came into existence due to historical developments. SNA is an example of De Facto protocol. SNA stands for System Network Architecture. IBM develops this protocol.
The De Jure Protocols
De Jure means according to the law. These protocols are developed with proper research and design to fulfill the requirement of data communication. These protocols are finally published as a standard.
Types Of Network Protocols
IP (Internet Protocol): Internet Protocol / IP is the primary communication protocol in the TCP packet. Where it is used in computer devices that link them together within the network. It is responsible for addressing the process and giving each device a special address that is completely unique
The organizations for developing communication protocols or standards are:
CCITT stands for Consultative Committee on International Telegraph and Telephone. It is UN Agency. It is responsible for defining standards for telephone, telegraph, and data communication. The most popular standard defined by CCITT is X25. This standard is the most common standard in Wide Area Network (WAN). CCITT is also popular as International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
IEEE stands for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It also defines data communication protocols. The IEEE defines the following communication protocols for Local Area Network (LAN).
- Ethernet (also known as IEEE 802.3)
- Token Bus (also known as IEEE 802.4)
- Token Ring (also known as IEEE 802.5)
ISO stands for International Standard Organization. It is also responsible for defining standards in various fields.