Types of Network Protocols

Are you searching for network protocols?  Then you have clicked the right link. This topic gives you the concept of network protocols, different types of network protocols and its applications in a network also.

What are Network Protocols?

Computer networking is not only to exchange bytes. There exist huge systems with several utilities and functions such as error detection, Encryption, Routing etc. For proper communication, different systems must speak the same language. There must be commonly suitable ways and principles about the interaction, timing, and underlying mechanisms. Those ways and associated principles are called Network Protocols.

Protocol Architecture

The task of data transfer is broken up into some modules. Here is the question is:




How do these modules interact?

For example, file transfer could use three modules

  • File transfer application Layer
  • Communication service module
  • Network access module

Simplified File Transfer Architecture

File Transfer Application Layer: It specific commands, passwords,  actual file(s) and high-level data also.

Communications Service Module: It ensures the reliability to transfer of those data, detection of errors and structured delivery of data packets also.


Network Module: Network module ensures the actual transfer of data. It also deals with the network. If the network changes, this will affect only this module, not the entire system.

Categories of Network Protocols

The two types of network protocols are as follows:

  • De Facto protocol
  • De Jure protocol

The De Facto Protocols

The word De Facto means existing. These protocols are developed without any formal planning. These protocols came into existence due to historical developments. SNA is an example of De Facto protocol. SNA stands for System Network Architecture. IBM develops this protocol.

The De Jure Protocols

De Jure means according to the law. These protocols are developed with proper research and design to fulfill the requirement of data communication. These protocols are finally published as a standard.

The organizations for developing communication protocols or standards are:



CCITT stands for Consultative Committee on International Telegraph and Telephone. It is UN Agency. It is responsible for defining standards for telephone, telegraph and data communication. The most popular standard defined by CCITT is X25. This standard is the most common standard in Wide Area Network (WAN).  CCITT is also popular as International Telecommunication Union (ITU).


IEEE stands for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It also defines data communication protocols. The IEEE defines the following communication protocols for Local Area Network (LAN).

  • Ethernet (also known as IEEE 802.3)
  • Token Bus (also known as IEEE 802.4)
  • Token Ring (also known as IEEE 802.5)


ISO stands for International Standard Organization. It is also responsible for defining standards in various fields.

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External links:

Network Protocols



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