Mainframe systems are used to support thousands of applications, input and output devices to serve and support thousands of user simultaneously. This article contains all descriptions and knowledge about different types of mainframe systems in an operating system, their types, characteristics, functions application and working with examples. So don’t wait, let’s read it.
Mainframe systems were won’t solve industrial and scientific issues. Following is that the brief description of this sort of systems.
Types of Mainframe Systems
some important types of mainframe systems are as follows:
- Simple Batch Systems
- Multi-Programmed Systems
- Time Sharing Systems
Simple Batch Systems
simple batch processing system is one of the most important form of mainframe systems. Early computers were run from console. The card readers and tape drives were input devices. Line printers, tape drives and card punched were common output devices. The user failed to act directly with the system. The users ready a job that consisted of program, information and a few management data. He then submitted it to the pc operator within the kind of punched cards.
The package was easy. Its basic job was to transfer management mechanically type one job to consecutive. The package was invariably resident in memory. The operator batched similar jobs along and so ran within the laptop to hurry up the process.
The processor is commonly idle during this setting as the speed of I/O devices is far slower than the processor. Once typically, the introduction of the disk rather than card reader resulted in quicker I/O devices. In disk technology, the package keeps all jobs on a disk rather than a card reader. The resources are utilized and jobs are performed a lot of with efficiency with the assistance of job programming. Job programming is feasible as a result of all jobs on a disk rather than card programming. Jon programming is feasible as a result of all jobs are present on the disk.
|User Program Area|
Figure: Memory layout for a simple batch system
The above figure shows the memory layout of a straightforward batch system. The memory contains package in one half and user program in different half. The user area will contain just one method and at a time in a batch system. Digital instrumentality VMS is a very important example of an execution.
Another most important form of mainframe systems is multi-programmed system. A group of jobs that are able to be dead is termed job pool. Since there’s over one job which will be dead, it’s doable for the package to create a call regarding that job to execute next. That call keeps processor utilization as high as doable.
Figure: Memory layout for multiprogramming
In general, it’s unacceptable for one user to stay processor or I /O devices busy in any respect times. Execution permits the system to extend processor utilization by making certain that the processor invariably features a job to execute.
The processor features a pool of jobs. once the present death penalty job has got to wait, it’s off from the processor. Another job is chosen and also the processor currently executes it. This method ensures that the processor is usually death penalty employment if there’s employment to execute. during a non-multiprogrammed system, if employment had to attend for an associate degree I/O operation, processor would even have to attend till I/O was finished.
CPU needs refined information structures to implement execution. The processor should be ready to decide that job is to be dead next. Some jobs can match into memory directly. Some jobs might be got to stay on disk. The package should be ready to perform some type of programming on the work pool. It determines that jobs can be the disk and which of them are going to be loaded into memory. The package should have some kind of memory management. Memory management is employed to keep track of that jobs are hold on wherever and the way a lot of area is obtainable.
Sometimes, there could also be many roles which will run at anyone time. The interaction between jobs should be controlled. In general, one job mustn’t be ready to manipulate the info or program code of another job.
In a batch system, the user cannot act with the hob once it’s being dead. It means all doable issues should be anticipated beforehand because the user cannot build corrections throughout execution. It becomes terribly tough once a program has got to bear several phases like compilation; linking etc. it’s going to be tough to outline what to try to if a specific section fails. Another downside is that the debugging of a program. All debugging is static. The sole data to search out is why the program is giving incorrect output at numerous stages of execution.
Time-sharing was introduced to create laptop systems a lot of interactive. The processor is that the most vital resource that’s shared. Every job gets a processor for a tiny low quantity of your time. Once the assigned fundamental quantity for a job is employed, the consecutive job in line is allotted processor.
The change between jobs happens terribly oftentimes. It permits the user to act with the work because it is running. Package ought to enable the user to act with jobs that ar execution. The communication typically happens via a keyboard. The user gets a prompt to enter commands. The user should recognize the standing of the work so as to enter relevant commands. The output of employment is typically given on a monitor.
Generally; the commands are given by the user take little time to execute. The management returns to program line once finishing a command. It displays a prompt to point that the system is prepared to execute another command.
Time Sharing System
Time-sharing system may be a multi-user, multi-method and interactive system. It permits multiple users to share a laptop at the same time. It is also an important type of mainframe systems.
It’s used once many users are joined through communication networks to a single laptop. The pc initial works on one user’s task for a fraction of your time. It then goes to consecutive user’s task. It’s accomplished through time slicing. Every task gets a time slice in spherical robin fashion. The task continues till the time slice ends. The task stops once the given time slice is finished and waits for an additional time slice.
The computer operates terribly quickly and might distribute time slices to varied tasks. The pc apace switches back and forth among completely different tasks. Sharing systems use processor programming and execution to supply every user with a tiny low portion of your time shared laptop. The processor is allotted to employment providing that job is present in memory.
A sharing system is extremely advanced. It’s a lot of advanced than a multi-programmed system. It should be ready to have many jobs prepared in memory at the same time. It needs some kind of memory management and protection. Jobs should be swapped in and come in an affordable time. It’s going to be achieved by using memory. The virtual memory may be a technique that enables the execution of a task that will not be fully within the memory.
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