What is Marine Ecosystem | Definition, Food Web and Importance
Do you ever think about which medium aquatic animals survive? It is just like our Environment but it is totally different Environment due to different oxygen and other life essentials, it is actually called Marine Environment. As our environment aquatic life also needs a medium to live which is called Marine Environment. So, you have needed to read this topic carefully because I have explained all the aspects of the Marine Environment. Do you ever experience the Water Environment by reading it? So let,s start to read
What are Marine Ecosystems?
Marine Ecosystems are aquatic environments with very high concentrations of salts present in them. The different Oceans, coastal, Lakes, Canals, and other deep oceans come in the category of the aquatic ecosystem. They have their own physical and biological properties.
These Marine Environments have very high concentrations of salts within them. These Marine Ecosystems can be defined by their biotic and Abiotic factors. The Biotic factors are Plants, Animals, and other Microorganisms while the Abiotic factors are the buildings, roads, and other infrastructures. The important Abiotic factors of the Environment are Water, Air, Temperature, and Soil which are supporting lives.
Sunlight is a basic and very important factor in the marine Ecosystem. Scientists have divided the marine ecosystem into three parts on the amount of light they are receiving. The euphotic zone is the topmost part of the marine ecosystem extending 200 meters below the surface of the earth. The other zone is the Dysphotic zone which can reach from 200 to as deep as 1,000 meters below the surface. Below the Dysphotic zone, there lays the aphotic zone in the marine ecosystem which cannot receive sunlight.
Types of Marine Environment
Scientists have divided the marine ecosystem into various types on the basis of the concentration of salts and the number of Animals in it. These marine ecosystems are actively debated. Although there are some disagreements but various marine ecosystems are agreed upon: estuaries, Salt marshes, Coral reefs, mangrove forests, and the deep sea ocean.
The Estuary is called coastal where the sea meets with the rivers. Here, the different concentrations of the salts mix with one another. As a result, the Estuaries are the most productive areas and can support the different lives on the surface of the earth. Estuaries are traditionally supported by human activities and the activities like Fishing, Shipping Transportation, etc.
While the Estuaries are formed at the place where the rivers meet the ocean. Salt marshes are formed at the places where the ocean meets the land. The oceans brought the salts and nutrients that’s why these places are nutrient-rich. The surrounding lands are salty and marshy because the Marshes are regularly flooded by high tides.
Coastal Ecosystem- Marine Environment
Another coastal ecosystem is the mangrove forest. The Mangrove forests are locally in tropical areas. The ocean water and the submerging of roots of the mangrove forests can cause frequent water flooding in those areas. These mangrove forests provide shelter to various species of animals and also to other species. They also provide nesting sites for the birds. They also provide the home for some species like reptiles, tiny plants, Crabs, Amphibians, and other animals.
The Coral Polyps secrete the exoskeletons which are useful to build euphotic zone. They also work for the shelter of different species because they are so strong. These Coral reefs are so diverse in their varieties that can easily host Sponges, crustaceans, mollusks, fishes, and also their diverse organisms. By some different counts, coral reefs can account for a quarter of all the species.
They lie in the open ocean. These open oceans vary as their depth changes. These oceans have the euphotic zone which can receive plenty of sunlight and also oxygen. This is fairly warm compared to other zones of the ocean. This zone supports the plants and animals by proper availability of sunlight; moreover, it supports the plants by enhancing their photosynthesis. Many of the organisms which we associate with the ocean are whales, dolphins, octopi, and sharks that live in the different parts of the ocean
Impacts of Climate Change, Invasive Alien Species, and Acidification
The climate is disrupting the marine environment but the fisherman is highly dependent on the healthy marine ecosystem for their needs.
Professor Nuran Unsal from Istanbul University highlights the effect of climate change on the ocean and also on marine life. The different Migratory species with high economic value, such as bluefish or mackerel, and Atlantic flounder, migrate south to the Mediterranean Sea in autumn and north to the Black Sea in spring.
Their migration patterns are disrupted by the changing patterns of the winds along the sea. According to Professor Unsal, “ Changes in the water temperature and seasonal winds that are crucial for the necessary currents have disrupted their migration patterns”.
So, I have tried my best to explain the Marine Environment that the supporting medium for aquatic life. I have simply told you about marine life in this post. Guys this topic is going to be very useful for you. If you have any questions about this topic you can ask freely. I will reply to everybody.