What is Google Scholar? The Complete Tutorial On Using Google Scholar

It is safe to say that Google Scholar is the best free search engine for scientific research resources and articles. There are many ways to find research resources, but Google’s service is the easiest way for anyone working in science and research.

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Items that the researcher or student may be looking for can be the download of books, dissertations, excerpts, legal texts, master’s and doctoral dissertations, or other sources. Maybe one day you will be looking to publish an article in your field. This article will probably give you some information you need to get started.

What is Google Scholar?

Google Scholar is owned by Google and is available to everyone for free. With the help of Google Scholar, you can search the scientific literature, citations, authors, and articles and follow the latest scientific events in various fields of research.

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Article authors can create a public Google Scholar profile and view the articles they cite. It also has the ability to automatically update the author’s profile when an article is published and add the article to the author’s profile collection.

With the help of GS, you can view the author profile of the article. This tool is less accurate than other tools for HTML indexing because it also includes articles published in unreliable journals in calculating the HTML index.

History of Google Scholar

Google Scholar is the result of a dispute between two people named Alex Verstak and Anurag Acharya, who both work at Google. Google Scholar capabilities have increased over time. In 2006, the ability to import “quotes” was added. In 2007, Asharia announced that Google Scholar had launched a program to digitize scholarly articles with the consent of their publishers. This was a far cry from the work of Google Books, which only scanned old books whose “metadata” was not available.

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In 2011, Google removed the phrase “Scientist” from the search engine toolbar. Meanwhile, sites with similar features, including Microsoft Academics, were launched in 2016. The turning point in 2012 was that researchers were able to create separate profiles through which researchers could enter areas of interest.

Another feature added to the search engine in 2013 allowed users to save their search results in the Google Scholar library. With this possibility, researchers can organize their results by “tagging”.

Features And Functions of Google Scholar

  • Evaluate the credibility of articles and authors
  • Excellent advanced search options
  • Ability to display your articles in different languages
  • Save the collected resources
  • A brief review of the authors’ research status
  • Find the full text of articles and scientific articles on the Internet
  • See the number of citations and statistics
  • Find different versions of articles on the Internet
  • Search among all scientific sources
  • Search for articles by year of publication
  • View article references and search by them
  • Create a personal profile for each author
  • Ability to find quotes for your articles
  • Calculate the H index based on the number of citations and articles and draw the corresponding graph
  • View information and profiles of prominent researchers and authors
  • Find quotes, quotes related to works, authors, and publications
  • Awareness of the latest scientific advances in various fields

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Reasons To Use Google Scholar Instead of Google

We use Google every day for our internet searches. Now the question arises why we should get help from Google Scholar. One of the benefits of this is access to a user interface similar to the Google search page. Of course, there are some differences with the Google search page that we will mention below.

  • Ability to overwrite various referral formats including “MLA” and “APA”
  • Extract “bibliographic” data such as “BibTex” and “RIS” to use reference management software
  • There are links that take you directly to the full article.

Although Google Scholar Search is free, most scholarly articles are not available for free. However, Google is also trying to find copies of it. Additionally, if your university has access to university databases, you can set up a link that shows what your university has to offer in the search.

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Due to the importance of Google Scholar in finding scientific articles and using them in the field of scientific production, Faradres has published a video of teaching scientific research using the GS link below.

How to Use Google Scholar?

You must be logged in to https://scholar.google.com to use this service. A page similar to the Google search page will open and you can search for the word or phrase you want. When the search results are displayed at the end of each article, the mentioned sections and related articles are written which is very useful.

Cited by: Indicates the number of citations from the article by other articles, using this number to determine the amount and validity of this link. So the higher the number, the more reliable the source.

Related Articles: This section lists related articles that can be a good source for an article or dissertation.

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Tips For Searching In Google Scholar

In order to get better results when searching on Google Scholar, you should follow the various points mentioned below.

  • Google Scholar Search is not case sensitive, which means that machine learning can be written as machine learning and machine learning with similar results.
  • Use keywords instead of full phrases. You will get better results if you use keywords instead of writing complete phrases. The best way is to make a list of keywords and search for them all.
  • Use ” ” to get results that are searched by exact keyword. Without quoting, Google Scholar treats each keyword as a separate phrase. For example, when searching for “national park”, Google may consider the words “park” and “national” separately and give irrelevant results, but only if we search for “national park”. , Google considers it as a single phrase.
  • By placing the word “year” in the search term, you will get the results for the same year. For example, a search for “2015 cars” will take you to the 2015 results.
  • Use the sidebar to adjust search results. With this feature on the left side of the page, you can apply more restrictions to the results.
  • Use the Boolean operator to control search results. We’ve said before that searches are not case sensitive, but there are Boolean operators that must be capitalized to use them. These operators are described below.

A: If this phrase is used between two keywords, both keywords will appear in the results.

“NOT”: This phrase removes the keyword from the results after this phrase.

“Or”: You will have the same importance for both keywords in the results, in each result, there is a key factor.

Some Practical Google Scholar Search Tricks

  • Synonyms are searched if the letter is used immediately before the keywords.
  • If characters are used before and after the search term, resources containing the entire phrase are displayed.
  • If the OR phrase is inserted in the search keywords, sources containing at least one of the keywords are displayed.
  • Use characters point to sources that contain the related phrase immediately before the searched words and use the + character immediately before the search words, refer to sources that contain the related phrase.

Advanced Tricks

  • Enter the phrase in the title: Indicates the source of the phrase searched in the title.
  • Type intext: Indicates the sources in which the search term appears in the text of the document.
  • Enter all in the title: Sources indicate that all search terms are in the title.
  • Insert All in Text: Indicates the sources in which all search terms appear in the body of the document.
  • Enter the author phrase: Shows the sources where the search phrase appears in the author’s name

How To Find The Full Text of an Article In Google Scholar?

In Google Scholar, article summaries are usually displayed for free, and in most cases, you need a personal or corporate subscription. However, we offer several ways to increase the likelihood of finding the full text of documents and articles.

  • Click the PDF link on the right
  • Use all the versions at the bottom of the search results and check out other alternative sources
  • Click the library link on the right
  • Use the related and cited articles at the bottom of the search results page and find a similar article

How Do You Find The Latest Titles?

By default, Google Scholar search results are not displayed in chronological order and are linked together. To change this order, click A year ago on the left side of the results page to view articles and documents for a specific time period.

  • Find the latest articles in Google Scholar
  • With the option to create alerts, you can periodically receive new results in your email

Limitations Of Google Scholar

As mentioned at the beginning of the text, there is no official report on the number of articles in the Google Scholar database, but millions of different articles and publications are added each year. Currently, Google Scholar does not display all search results for you.

For example, these results could include podcasts, educational videos, articles, statistics, and more. As of this writing, the following content is displayed in GS:

“Journal Articles”: These articles include a collection of reviewed articles, “Predatory Magazines” and “Pre-Print Archives”.
Conference Steps: Articles and presentation papers used in conferences can be found in Google Scholar search results.

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Patents: These results are shown only if the “Inventions” search option is enabled in the search settings. Note that information about articles in Google Scholar is not collected by experts and this information is based specifically on the original source. This type of data collection is different from the methods used in Scopus and Web of Science.

Alternative Sources

Although Google Scholar is the most widely used scientific search engine, in addition to Semantic Scholar, there are other search engines, including Microsoft Academics, as its closest competitor.

Frequently Asked Questions

So far we have tried to give a complete explanation of Google Scholar and how to search and organize the results, but there may still be questions that we try to answer some of the most frequently asked questions.

Q1:- Can Google Scholar be considered a bibliographic database?

Ans: The answer is no. The GS is more of a search engine than a database. In order for Google Scholar to be considered a database, it is necessary to consider the fixed identifiers of the results and ensure that these results are not deleted.

Q2:- Is Google Scholar a scientific resource?

Ans: No, Scholar is a search engine for scientific articles, but existing articles can be classified as scientific sources.

Q3:- Does Google Scholar only display articles that have been reviewed?

Ans: No. This search engine collects all articles from around the world, some of which have not been judged.

Q4:- Is it free to download articles from Google Scholar?

Ans: It does not charge you to submit an article, but you may be redirected to a page where you will have to pay for the full print version of the article. However, we try to maintain links to download articles provided for free.

Q5:- What is the easiest way to use Google Scholar?
Ans: The easiest way to use this search engine is to install and activate the “Google Scholar Button” or “Google Scholar Button” in the Chrome browser.

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