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Categories: Computer Science

IoT Security Challenges, Threats And Solutions

IoT security has long been a very crucial topic for IoT applications and has continuously become a major IoT hurdle. There are given some discussion about the necessity of this issue in this topic, we offer to examine the IoT security about the Internet of Things.

What Is IoT Security?

IoT security means controlling and protecting the information that is transmitted through the World Wide Web, between command servers and various devices, from any intentional or synthetic eavesdropping, intrusion, and manipulation.

Why is IoT Security So Important?

In 1395, the Mirai botnet is one of the largest DDoS attacks ( DDoS ) that has been waged ever recorded. More than 1 terabyte per second destroyed the Dyn network, the main DNS provider, and sites like Reddit and Airbnb.

But what made this attack so special was that it was the first time such an attack had been carried out with Internet of Things (IoT) tools. During the attack, nearly 150,000 smart cameras, routers, and other devices that relied on a botnet and were connected were compromised and focused on a single target.

IoT Security

Anyway, the Mirai Button team is much bigger! By some estimates, the Mirai botnet contains millions of devices connected to it. And of course, it should be borne in mind that in the beginning, its construction and design were not so difficult. Developers use several default passwords and usernames to protect the IoT tool.

So you have several hundred thousand password combinations to protect tens of millions of smart IoT devices. These were all simple lines of code designed to test each of these default passwords. A device can be hacked and controlled in a matter of seconds as long as the user has not changed the standard input information.

IoT Security Challenges

Because, according to statistics, more than 70% of devices will be fully equipped with the Internet of Things. Within the next 20 years, hacking and injecting malicious code into servers or the devices themselves can cause financial or even human-level damage. Be wide. So we have to carefully examine and analyze these challenges.

The first challenge in IoT Security is the use of multiple technologies:

You should know that various technologies have been used to date in smartening various devices and connecting them to IoT. RFID hardware technologies, various sensing sensors, and cloud servers are just some of the technologies used in various IoT fields.

And certainly, not all of these devices are the same. Because each of them uses its own protocol. And this is a fundamental challenge to fix various types of bugs and security vulnerabilities.

For example, the system and method of coding for an RFID component are significantly different from the programming language of smartwatches and cell phones. And to provide each of them, we must employ people with different knowledge.

The second challenge in IoT Security, various fields:

The Internet of Things is used in a variety of fields such as medicine, industry, or home. Each of them has its own challenges and issues. For example, hacking into a home system can destroy people’s privacy.

Or if you consider non-vendor stores like Amazon Go, infiltration and downtime of the cash register system could result in billions in damages due to non-payment of merchandise. For this reason, security demands and needs are different and an answer must be provided for each of them.

The third challenge in IoT Security is the huge flood of data:

Imagine connecting about 7 billion different devices to the Internet. And each of them sends and receives a few meg daily! In this case, we are dealing with an infinite galaxy of diverse data, all of which are important and significant.

Not a single bit of them should be tapped, manipulated, or destroyed and they should reach their destination correctly and correctly without the slightest damage. The technology and the platform that can fully provide this for us is by no means simple and requires very intelligent thinking and flawless hardware.

The fourth IoT Security challenge, commitment or non-commitment:

The next challenge in terms of security is who is responsible for providing security in IoT? Users and consumers believe that security is fully and 100% the responsibility of the manufacturers of these devices. They say impermeable devices must be produced.

Opposite this category is manufacturers who believe that a large part of this is the responsibility of the consumer and users. They do not fully address the security of the Internet of Things and believe that most of these problems can be solved by observing users.

For example, infiltration by installing malicious applications is considered by users, which is somewhat reasonable. In any case, a fair solution and agreement must be reached between the two groups so that we do not see such differences on the Internet of Thing

IoT security Checks

Whenever we connect different IoT devices, these bring many benefits to homes, societies, organizations, agriculture,  hospitals, and urban infrastructure. It also confirms you to new threats such as cyber security threats and attacks such as Hackers put.

Hence, securing smart buildings and smart urban structures has been proved very important for preventing the information from, espionage hacking, disruption of health, industry and also for different trade activities. That is why most IT professionals make IoT security a top precedence.

Securing IoT Infrastructure

Securing the Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure is so much sensitive and also needs a short-term strategy. This strategy provides you with help to secure your data in the cloud and also protect your data integrity when you are transferring it over the public Internet.

The Securing of IoT infrastructures is impossible without the participation of stakeholders in all occasions of development, construction, and deployment of different IoT security devices.

For example, to make an access and for making a connection to IoT hardware, it should be limited and based on minimum requirements. By including its additional features to connect, it is most probably to be at increased threat of hacker attacks.

Moreover, the solution to this problem needs the use of basic technologies like sensor data protection, encryption mechanisms, secure communications, and encryption algorithms to make and develop IoT hardware. These characteristics make the devices safer and also help to protect the overall IoT security infrastructure.

Authentication And Licensing

These keywords are the most important that should be considered in any IoT security evaluation checklist. Access control not only plays a crucial role in the security of the IoT product but also helps to slow its effects if the security of the device or product is compromised.

IoT devices provide maximum performance and also its performance for their owners through connecting with other IoT devices and different types of networks. But its function is like a double-edged sword, and often threats can go beyond their benefits.

Actually, making some communication with an insecure device or network can leads to security vulnerabilities over all devices. Therefore, security frameworks can just connect valid devices to each other.

Data Protection

All IoT security products should limit their informative data collection for reducing the likelihood of unauthorized access to their information. Saving unnecessary data about the consumer increases the likelihood that information will be directly going to unauthorized persons.


The ability to test and evaluate intelligent systems is the main part of ensuring their efficiency within the IoT security framework. This test should be consist of digital testing, physical testing, and other ongoing specialized testing the flexibility

The security structure should be moveable enough to fulfill the accumulation of new tools and to provide guidance that is provided by the industry. To do this, the software should be updated as automatically as possible.

This automatic update results in fast-updating vulnerability mechanisms across all devices without waiting for the user authentication and interaction as new threats are discovered. In such a case, any unauthorized bother on the device information will be dissatisfied.

Remote Control Capability

All IoT products must be capable to controlled by a remote.  IoT Security management system becomes easier with this characteristic and also improves the customer experience of working with the device.

Ability To Detect The Influence Of Strangers

IoT systems must be able to recognize intruders in a timely manner and be able to send appropriate alerts in real-time. The main hardship for most IoT operating systems is to detect intrusions, which are their inabilities to process big data.

The fact is that the encrypted data from the IoT is too much large; the platform that is used to process such data must be compatible with interpreting large volumes of data.

The IoT security platform should be able to fulfill all the insights for the detection of abnormalities and destructive behaviors by providing the correct behavioral analysis. Any deviation from normal behavior can also indicate the necessary threat and warnings for the main users, which can lead to the most crucial actions.

Documentation Of  Security Policies

Every business, even on a large or small scale, has implemented security rules that employees and other stakeholders are expected to follow.

Most small businesses are now operating through online platforms because they do not have the crucial investment for the true infrastructure. Consequently, they are more easily to be involved in cyberbullying.

The Documentation of the IoT security policies believes that the companies have a set protocol regarding the IoT security of information and in all circumstances of the breach, disciplinary actions should be taken very strictly.

The IoT Security policies also provide a secure platform for online training and the reference to follow to stay away from any data breach.

Back-Up Important Data

The fully managed IoT service providers ensure you that your company data is testified correctly and arranged properly. It is not a matter that how many IoT security policies are put in place together or how many experts are working continuously.

There always lies the threat of data breaches. That is why it is a better way to get the most crucial information from a managed IoT service provider (backup).

The efficient way to store all the word processing databases along with spreadsheets, financial, documents, and human resource management records are the Cloud management solutions.

These solutions can be properly arranged to prevent breaches. Moreover, for backed-up data to operate the information continually regular checks must be ensured.

Provide Additional Data Protection

Even after internal security is installed, there is always a requirement for external and additional protection. Most phishing methods used by external links may interrupt internal security. Managed IT services providing firewall systems and anti-malware software to prevent these phishing attacks.

Additional data protection ensures that the information is protected from such attacks. For the sake to control, organizing, and securing all networks within the Company. Other protections must be provided in all employee systems. Easy to provide SMS Managed IT services because staff strength is usually relatively low.

Let Employees Know About Internal Safety

Employees of both small and large-scale businesses are a crucial part of every organization. If employees are educated and aware of internal security policies, they will be more careful about protecting their information. Managed IT services has launched Online training and certification review that will help employees better understand safety policies.

Moreover, managed IoT services play an important key role in making employees aware of internal and external security policies. Employees’ access to databases and data serves as a barrier.

Adjust Secure Password Practices

The Secure password practices are recommended by the majority of managed IoT providers. Since most businesses are chosen by OD policies, passwords are not allowed to change by the employee. So strong password implemented policies can help you to save crucial time and also help you to create a better model for IoT security.

Most businesses often use to change passwords day by day. But it is not only boring but also time-consuming for the staff. It is mostly recommended to use uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, and other numeric symbols to create an authentic password that is so difficult to identify. It is the best way to avoid external attacks.

Take a Multi-Reason Account

The IoT services ensure that you do not have to move through procedures that continuously violate the database. The way to manage the operations in a small business is only when the information is secure. For SMBs, a multi-reason identifier is required for securing their network connections.

A more advanced layer of protection is provided for security. Moreover, it is easy to be done. Multi-factor identification usually refers to major databases, but it can also be used for many purposes. It is time-saving and ensures you that your data will not be compromised, even if the employees make a last-ditch mistake.

Creating User Accounts for An Individual Employee

It is a wise decision to create individual user accounts for each employee. This ensures that there is no overlap and lack of access to information between the staff, and therefore it maintains the necessary details.

The employee’s accounts should be protected by making strong passwords. High-level information and files containing data should only be made to higher authorities and must be accessible with the help of passwords.

Also, make sure that all devices – laptops, computers, etc., are not physically accessible except those provided. Employees should be warned not to turn off their devices and share their passwords when they are not needed.

Enable Internet Connection Firewall Protection

A company should always be connected to the Internet to operate and continue its functions properly. However, the Internet has now become a major source of abuse. So, make sure you have firewall protection.

You can easily buy firewall protection or install it for free. One is enough and it will save you from harmful malware and viruses that can damage your network. If you have employees who work with you, make sure that their home connection is strong and secure. Tell them about installing firewall protection if their connection is not working.

The Internet and IoT are the most crucial parts of every business. Although it has its own set of hazards, you even cannot stop using it. However, all you can do is follows strong security protocols to protect yourself and your business information from any destructive malware.

There are several co-related steps to achieve the status of a great power that can effectively use to design the IoT security system for its member states. Some policy recommendations are discussed below:

  • The Development of a global strategy as a basis for the identification of the great new power of the European Union.
  • Compile political and regulatory documents with the global strategy and, like NATO, adopt “Article 5”.
  • Transforming the EU into a closer political union and federalization in the field of foreign policy with the use of IoT security and making a defense (intelligence, army, border troops).
  • Development of a policy system in the field of IoT security and make an attempt to defend the faster decision-making in order to make sure better response and efficiency.

IoT Security Issues

There are some IoT security Issues given below:

Weak Password Protection

Hard-coded and compiled credentials are a great threat to IoT systems and also too much dangerous for IoT devices. Under the guess or hard-coded credentials act as a windfall for hackers to attack the device directly.

  • The hacker may before know the password to the machine with the help of default passcodes!
  • Mirai malware is crucial and an excellent illustration of such an attack.
  • Mirai threatened the IoT devices through routers to video cameras and video recorders by making a successful attempt to log in by using a table of 61 same hard-coded usernames and passwords.
  • The malware created a vast bonnet. It “enslaved” the chain of 400,000 secure connected devices.
  • The Mirai-infected devices (who became “zombies”) were firstly launched in September 2016, in the world’s first 1Tbps Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS), which attacks servers at the heart of the internet services.
  • Amazon Web Services and its clients have been taken down through it, including GitHub, Netflix, Twitter, and Airbnb.
  • There’s more, Reaper came first to light at the end of 2017 based on Mirai.
  • Reaper compromised about 20,000 to 30,000 devices, which can be used to launch crippling Dodos attacks.
  • Lack of regular patches and updates and weak update mechanism
  • IoT security products are developed with ease of use and to create connectivity in mind.
  • They may be saved at the time of purchase but become vulnerable while the hackers face new security issues.
  • If they are not concerned with regular updates, the IoT security devices become exposed with time.

IoT Security Concern With Satori

Satori is another malware that extends and acts similarly to Mirai. Satori provides a worm so that infection can spread from one device to another device without any human interaction.

  • Firstly, it doesn’t just spread via credential guessing but it is found to target the known vulnerabilities in specific regulations of WiFi routers.
  • Secondly, Satori discovered the infecting smart processor structures previously ignored by IoT malware, Super H, and ARC.
  • Enterprises also offer critical new security updates to IoT security devices in the field.
  • Network management should also pay more attention to updating the new mechanisms that also include only preferred updates and encryption by making some changes for a new authenticity.
  • Unexpected firmware updates have led the developers to some hard lessons about the well-planned Firmware over the Air (FOTA) strategy.

Insecure Interfaces

All IoT security devices work and communicate data in a secure profile. They require services, apps, and protocols for making their connections and much IoT exposure generate from the insecure sections.

They are the same as application cloud, and mobile  API web, and can make a compromise over the device and its given information. The same problems consist of insufficient device authorization and authentication and low encryption.

Device authentication is used to protect the access to a connected device and the data that it provides, only to attract people and its applications that can prove that they know the internal information.

Digital Certificates

They make a digital network (IoT device, computer, etc.) able to translocate information securely to allowed parties. X509 certificates are standard certificates that are usually provided by a trusted Certificate Authority. They permit us to identify and verify each IoT security device in a unique way.

Don’t Get Left Behind

Firstly build applications that are using the latest security protocols and standards. There are sort of policies, best practices, standards, and guidelines provided by different sources. In the United States, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has established January 2020 as its second draft.

ENISA provides certification for IoT security devices to work in a specific way. ENISA earlier published “Good Practices for IoT security – Secure Software Development Lifecycle” (November 20194. Insufficient data protection

The most common concerns about the data security of IoT applications are unsafe communications and data storage.  The most crucial challenge for IoT security is that compromised devices work to make easy access to confidential data.

In 2017, researchers from Dark trace think that they had discovered a very sophisticated attack on the casino. The IoT security hackers made an easy approach towards the database of “high rollers”.

For one time the hackers got a complete hold of the network, they make access to about 10GB of data. The importance of secure data storage and network separation cannot be more evident

Poor IoT Device Management

In July 2020, a study was established to examine more than 5 million IoT, IoMT (Internet of Medical Things), and irregular connected devices in retail, healthcare, and in its formation as well as life sciences.

It deals with an amazingly vast number of vulnerabilities and threats across diverse sets of connected devices.

They contain shadow IoT (devices in active use without any knowledge about IT), violations, compliance, and US Food and Drug Administration recalled medical devices.

  • The report given below are describing facts and trends about IoT security:
  • More than 15% of devices were unauthorized.
  • 5 to 19% use unsupported legacy operating systems.
  • 49% of IoT teams were tinkered with their existing IoT security solutions to attain visibility.
  • 51% of them had no knowledge about what types of smart objects were actively processed in their network.
  • 75% of consumers had VLAN violations
  • 86% of healthcare deployments contain more than ten FDA devices.
  • 95% of healthcare networks were correlated with Amazon and Echo devices besides hospital observe equipment.

The IoT Skill Gap

Different Companies faced a vital IoT security skills gap that is vital to prevent them from exploiting new opportunities, Forbes (30 July 2019).

  • There is a need to put training and up-skilling programs.
  • Additional insightful workshops, newsletters, hands-on, and bulletins, “Hacker Fridays,” where team members are trying to hack a specific smart device, which can create a big difference.
  • Your team members should be prepared about the IoT security system to make it more powerful.

IoT Security Solutions

Change Your Default Passwords and Usernames

“Mirai” malware is still present on the Internet, lurking around the corner, actively pursuing more IoT devices to loot them towards the patents. Fortunately, this is a fairly simple malware, and by setting a strong and secure password and changing your default username, you can easily get rid of it and get rid of it.

For best results, we recommend that your password be at least 10 characters long and include at least 1 uppercase letter, 1 integer, 1 number, and 1 special character such as * or #.  Also, try to have different passwords for other devices; That way, if one device is hacked, you can count on your other passwords.

Be Up To Date With The Latest Software Updates

Manufacturers of the best IoT tools often equip their supplied products with patches and updates frequently to improve performance as well as fix security vulnerabilities. For this reason, try to make sure that your device receives these updates whenever it connects to the network.

Unfortunately, not all manufacturers publish updates regularly. Many of them do not even have to worry about updating them all, effectively leaving the customer and their device alone. Take a look at the product update cycle when you are in the research phase to buy.

If you can’t find it, and inspectors are clearly afraid of impossible software updates, then chances are the company wants to cut costs to your detriment. And often, that means reducing customer support costs as well.

IoT Security: Everything You Need To Know And Apply

The image above is an upgrade policy for a software called Open Nebula. Although not all developers apply this policy to their operating system, they certainly give you a good idea of ​​how this policy works.

In a similar example, here is a small example of Microsoft’s update policy for different versions of Windows software:

Apply Login Settings

Even strong passwords and custom usernames can be vulnerable to a dictionary attack or a pervasive search attack. Such attacks bombard a login page with a myriad of passwords until it hits the right target.

Apple’s iPhone, for example, has settings that lock the PIN after several attempts. After 10 attempts, it wipes the device completely. An IoT tool that has good internal security should have such an option that you can use to ensure the authenticity of your login.

Two-Step Authentication

Internet of Things in implementing the two-step authentication somewhat of a controversy over backward, but recently the company “Nest» ( Nest ) has announced a two-step authentication for both products, including thermostats, smart cameras will be used.

Most devices do not currently have 2-step verification, but as the industry grows, this feature will become more and more common in IoT devices in the future. At the same time, be sure to turn it on immediately when you see that your device supports such a feature.

Physical Weaknesses in IoT Security Tools

Sometimes all that is needed to infect a PC is to insert a USB flash drive and allow Windows to run or open it automatically, thereby software fully detecting malicious malware. Play all computers. Exactly the same principles apply to smart devices.

It is enough that the lucky device has a USB port and port, in which case all a malicious hacker has to do is a flash drive or USB cable. Connect to the device, wait a while and that’s it; Everything will be at his disposal. If possible, try to set your device so that whenever you connect a USB to it, it will not run quickly and directly.


Most smart devices work by connecting to a central server, Internet network, or smartphone. Unfortunately, data is often not encrypted properly because either both devices are small or the manufacturer has decided to cut costs (which includes the device’s security features).

We strongly recommend that you enable the option to encrypt your incoming and outgoing data whenever possible.

Create a Second, Separate Network For Your IoT Security Tools

A good way to protect your smart devices is to set up a separate network to communicate with. This network is not connected to the Internet, so the chances that malware could find its way onto your devices will be minimized.

However, this system has a set of problems. If you want to control your smart devices via your mobile phone, to control your IoT device network, you have to switch between Wi-Fi networks and switch. In this case, you need to learn how to automate everything, or you can use ZWave switches to switch between networks.

Secure Your Home Wi-Fi

The Wi-Fi router is one of the first places to be attacked by a malicious hacker. To ensure its security, we suggest you read this article and do the following:

Use a Strong And Secure Password

Change your username so that it is unrecognizable to attackers and hackers and it is not easy for them to know which Wi-Fi you have. Set up a firewall to protect your Wi-Fi. In most cases, the firewall will be software, but some routers are already equipped with hardware installed on them.

Disable guest network access for your wireless network. A guest network is the second Wi-Fi created by your router that restricts access to your “core” network. Theoretically, by securing guests in separate networks, more security should normally be provided. However, most Wi-Fi routers create an insecure guest network that can act as a gateway to your main Wi-Fi hotspot.

Disconnect The Device From The Internet When Not In Use

Devices like smart TVs do not require a permanent internet connection. By keeping them disconnected from the Internet, you will limit the amount of time a cybercriminal can attempt to breach its security

Final Thoughts

IoT security is a crucial part of our real life. There are several security challenges in the IoT. In this article, we examined a number of them as well as threats and their solutions.

We hope to see a more advanced world behind them. To get more familiar with the Internet of Things, you can use Fabio training courses. If you have an opinion on this topic, share it in the comments, help us to have a richer site in the field of IoT.





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