Data and information are interconnected. Data is a collection of raw particulars and statistics. The meaningful, ordered and processed form of data is called information. Each student’s test score is an example of data while. The average score of a class or school is an example of information.
Data is a collection of raw particulars and statistics that have not yet been processed to get their accurate meaning. data is represented by alphabets (A-Z, a-z), digits (0-9) or special characters (+,-,/,*,<,>,=). It may consist of facts, characters, signs, and pictures also.
Information is meaningful, ordered and processed form of data. It is extra important than data because decisions are made by using it. Data is utilized as input and the information is the output of this processing. This information can be exercised again in some other processing.
Similarities Between Data and Information
Data and information are interconnected and closely related to each other. Furthermore, Information cannot be compiled without data. Data is an unsystematic, unorganized and unrelated entity. While information is systematized, organized and understandable. Data is independent but the information is dependent.
Data Processing Life Cycle
The data processing life cycle is the set of steps necessary to switch data into useful information. The main purpose of this processing is to generate actionable information. Stages of the data processing life cycle are collection, preparation, input, processing, output, and storage.
Stages of Data Processing Life Cycle
- Collection: The first step of data processing focuses on the quality of the data. The data must be defined and accurate.
- Preparation: Manipulating data into a form that is suitable for further analysis and processing.
- Input: This step shows that data is together and given to the computer for processing.
- Process: In this step, the computer processes raw facts to produce information.
- Output: This step represents that the information is sent to the user as output.
- Storage: It is the last step of the data processing lifecycle. It includes the information that is stock up on the computer for future use. This step is optional.
Relationship Between Data and Information
Data and information are interconnected and closely related to each other. Furthermore, Information cannot be compiled without data. It will be meaningful if data is collected from the right resources. Data is the raw facts and figures while Information is a processed and meaningful form of that data.
Difference Between Data and Information
Data and information are interconnected. The main difference between data and information is, data usually consist of raw facts or figures that have not been arranged, analyzed and processed while information is arranged, analyzed and processed form of raw facts or figures.
Information is “knowledge delivered or received related to some specific reality or situation”. Furthermore, it consists of a well-arranged sequence of symbols/signs that can be evaluated to provide insight facts about a particular matter. The average score of a class or school is an example of information.
Data consists of statistics, letters, or a set of alphabets. Most data is collected by means of measurement. When data is processed or computed, it can be represented in the form of structure. This structure may be a table, data tree or a graph. Each student’s test score in the class is an example of data.
Basically, data itself has not enough importance. Until it is not evaluated to get required meanings or information.
Difference Between Data and Information in Tabular Form
|Data is an unsystematic, unorganized and unrelated entity.||Information is systematized, accurate and understandable.|
|Derived from the Latin word “Datum” means something given.||Derived from the French verb “informare” means to inform.|
|Measurements units of data are Bits, Nibble, Byte, KB, MB, GB, TB, PT, EB, ZB, YT.||It comes the second level of intelligence hierarchy.|
|Data deteriorates with the passage of time.||Information is critical in sense.|
|It may be consist of letters, digits or single words.||Information is a well-arranged sequence of letters and digits that of some meanings.|
|Data itself has no meaning.||The information must contain knowledge.|
|It is independent.||Information is dependent.|
|It is the raw facts that have not been analyzed and processed.||Information is the knowledge produced after processing.|
|Data does not consist of specific facts and figures.||Information is specific about some topic or subject.|
|Computer considered data as input.||It is the result/ output of the data being processed.|
For example, marks of a student in dissimilar subjects are the data. To compute the total marks, the marks of different subjects are exploiting as data, and total marks are the information. Now, to estimate the average marks of the students, this information will be also processed once more. In this processing, the information is used as data and average marks will be the information.
Examples of Data and Information
Examples of Data
- When students get admission, in colleges or universities, they have to fill out an admission form. The form consists of raw facts i.e student’s name, father name, and address, etc. The idea of collecting this data is, to sustain the records of the students throughout their study period.
- During the census, governments gather the data of all citizens of a country. The government stores this data permanently, to make use of it for diverse purposes at different times.
- Different organizations carry out surveys to identify the opinions of the people about their products. In these surveys, people also convey their ideas and opinions about diverse issues. The organizations use these ideas and opinions as data for the enhancement of their products also.
Examples of Information
- If we desire to find out, a list of all students who exist in Lahore, we will apply some processing on this data, this processing will provide us the desired list. This list is a form of processed data and will be called information.
- The data stored in a census is used to produce a different kind of information. For example, the government can also use it to discover the total number of graduates in the country or literacy rate in the country and also use the information in vital decisions to advance the literacy rates.
- An organization can use the view of the people as data. Then process it to produce information about its concern. For example, it can know how many people like or dislike its product. The organization can use this information for the perfection of its product.
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